活動與職能要求(ACTIVITY AND OCCUPATIONAL DEMANDS),著重於活動和從事活動所需的要素,將平時我們日常生活中的大小事(如吃飯、刷牙或行走等)等活動時需要具備哪方面的能力,幫助職能治療師分析個案在執行這些活動時在哪方面出現障礙,再針對缺失的能力設計專屬的治療性活動。以下表格取至於 OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY PRACTICE FRAMEWORK: Domain & Process III


Activity and occupational demands are the components of activities and occupations that occupational therapy practitioners consider during the clinical reasoning process. Depending on the context and needs of the client, these demands can be deemed barriers to or supports for participation. Specific knowledge about the demands of activities and occupations assists practitioners in selecting activities for therapeutic purposes. Demands of the activity or occupation include the relevance and importance to the client, objects used and their properties, space demands, social demands, sequencing and timing, required actions and performance skills, and required underlying body functions and body structures.



Relevance and importance to client
Alignment with the client’s goals, values, beliefs, and needs and perceived utility
  • Driving a car equates with independence.
  • Preparing a holiday meal connects with family tradition.
  • Voting is a rite of passage to adulthood.


  • 獨立開一台車
  • 準備一個假日傳統家庭餐
  • 投票是一個成年儀式


Objects used and their properties
Tools, supplies, and equipment required in the process of carrying out the activity
  • Tools (e.g., scissors, dishes, shoes, volleyball)
  • Supplies (e.g., paints, milk, lipstick)
  • Equipment (e.g., workbench, stove, basketball hoop)
  • Inherent properties (e.g., heavy, rough, sharp, colorful, loud, bitter tasting)


  • 工具(例如剪刀、餐具、鞋子、排球)
  • 耗材(如油漆、牛奶、口紅)
  • 設備(例如工作台、爐灶、籃球架)
  • 固有特性(例如重、粗糙的、銳利、色彩鮮豔、響亮、苦味)


Space demands (related to the physical environment)
Physical environmental requirements of the activity(e.g., size, arrangement, surface, lighting, temperature, noise, humidity, ventilation)
  • Large, open space outdoors for a baseball game
  • Bathroom door and stall width to accommodate wheelchair
  • Noise, lighting, and temperature controls for a library


  • 室外棒球比賽的大型開放空間
  • 洗手間或小隔間的門寬可以讓輪椅通過
  • 在圖書館控制噪音、照明及溫度


Social demands (related to the social environment and virtual and cultural contexts)
Elements of the social environment and virtual and cultural contexts that may be required by the activity
  • Rules of the game
  • Expectations of other participants in the activity (e.g., sharing supplies, using language appropriate for the meeting, appropriate virtual decorum)


  • 比賽的規則
  • 活動中其他參與者的期望(例如共享設備、在會議中使用適當的語言、在虛擬情境中使用適當的禮儀)


Sequencing and timing
Process required to carry out the activity (e.g., specific steps, sequence of steps, timing requirements)
  • Steps to make tea: Gather cup and tea bag, heat water, pour water into cup, let steep, add sugar.
  • Sequence: Heat water before placing tea bag in water.
  • Timing: Leave tea bag to steep for 2 minutes.
  • Steps to conduct a meeting: Establish goals for meeting, arrange time and location, prepare agenda, call meeting to order.
  • Sequence: Have people introduce themselves before beginning discussion of topic.
  • Timing: Allot sufficient time for discussion of topic and determination of action items.


  • 泡茶步驟:準備茶杯和茶包、熱水,將水倒入杯中,浸泡,加白糖。
  • 順序:先加熱水再將放茶包。
  • 時機:茶包浸泡2分鐘。
  • 舉辦會議步驟:建立目標的會議,安排時間和地點,準備議程,召集會議開始。
  • 次序:讓人們先介紹自己再開始議題的討論。
  • 時間:分配足夠的時間討論主題、決定執行項目。


Required actions and performance skills
Actions (performance skills—motor, process, and social interaction) required by the client that are an inherent part of the activity
  • Feeling the heat of the stove
  • Gripping a handlebar
  • Choosing ceremonial clothes
  • Determining how to move limbs to control the car
  • Adjusting the tone of voice
  • Answering a question

動作(表現技巧 – 動作、處理、社交互動)

  • 感覺爐子的熱度
  • 緊握車把
  • 選擇正式的服裝
  • 判斷如何移動肢體來控制汽車
  • 調整語氣
  • 回答問題


Required body functions
“Physiological functions of body systems (including psychological functions)” (WHO, 2001, p. 10) required to support the actions used to perform the activity
  • Mobility of joints
  • Level of consciousness
  • Cognitive level


  • 移動關節
  • 意識層級
  • 認知層級


Required body structures
“Anatomical parts of the body such as organs, limbs, and their components” that support body functions (WHO, 2001, p. 10) and are required to perform the activity
  • Number of hands or feet
  • Olfactory or taste organs


  • 手指與腳趾的數量
  • 嗅覺或味覺器官



  • American Journal of Occupational Therapy. Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Domain and Process (3rd Edition). American Journal of Occupational Therapy, March/April 2014, Vol. 68, S1-S48.

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