活動與職能要求(ACTIVITY AND OCCUPATIONAL DEMANDS)

活動與職能要求(ACTIVITY AND OCCUPATIONAL DEMANDS)

活動與職能要求(ACTIVITY AND OCCUPATIONAL DEMANDS),著重於活動和從事活動所需的要素,將平時我們日常生活中的大小事(如吃飯、刷牙或行走等)等活動時需要具備哪方面的能力,幫助職能治療師分析個案在執行這些活動時在哪方面出現障礙,再針對缺失的能力設計專屬的治療性活動。以下表格取至於 OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY PRACTICE FRAMEWORK: Domain & Process III

活動與職能要求

Activity and occupational demands are the components of activities and occupations that occupational therapy practitioners consider during the clinical reasoning process. Depending on the context and needs of the client, these demands can be deemed barriers to or supports for participation. Specific knowledge about the demands of activities and occupations assists practitioners in selecting activities for therapeutic purposes. Demands of the activity or occupation include the relevance and importance to the client, objects used and their properties, space demands, social demands, sequencing and timing, required actions and performance skills, and required underlying body functions and body structures.

活動與職能要求是職能治療師在臨床推理過程中會考量的職能與活動要素。根據個案需求與情境,這些需求可以成為活動參與的優勢或障礙。關於職能與活動需求的具體知識可以幫助職能治療師決定治療性目的。職能與活動需求包含個案的相關與重要性、物體的使用與特性、空間需求(與物理環境)、社會需求(關係到社會環境和虛擬與文化情境)、次序與時間、操作要求與表現技巧、所需的身體功能與所需的身體結構。

個案的相關與重要性

Relevance and importance to client
Alignment with the client’s goals, values, beliefs, and needs and perceived utility
  • Driving a car equates with independence.
  • Preparing a holiday meal connects with family tradition.
  • Voting is a rite of passage to adulthood.

活動與個案的目標、價值觀、信念、需求與可察覺的益處一致

  • 獨立開一台車
  • 準備一個假日傳統家庭餐
  • 投票是一個成年儀式

物體的使用與特性

Objects used and their properties
Tools, supplies, and equipment required in the process of carrying out the activity
  • Tools (e.g., scissors, dishes, shoes, volleyball)
  • Supplies (e.g., paints, milk, lipstick)
  • Equipment (e.g., workbench, stove, basketball hoop)
  • Inherent properties (e.g., heavy, rough, sharp, colorful, loud, bitter tasting)

在活動的過程中所需要的工具、用品和設備

  • 工具(例如剪刀、餐具、鞋子、排球)
  • 耗材(如油漆、牛奶、口紅)
  • 設備(例如工作台、爐灶、籃球架)
  • 固有特性(例如重、粗糙的、銳利、色彩鮮豔、響亮、苦味)

空間需求(與物理環境)

Space demands (related to the physical environment)
Physical environmental requirements of the activity(e.g., size, arrangement, surface, lighting, temperature, noise, humidity, ventilation)
  • Large, open space outdoors for a baseball game
  • Bathroom door and stall width to accommodate wheelchair
  • Noise, lighting, and temperature controls for a library

活動的物理環境的要求(例如尺寸、佈置、表面、照明、溫度、噪聲、濕度、通風)

  • 室外棒球比賽的大型開放空間
  • 洗手間或小隔間的門寬可以讓輪椅通過
  • 在圖書館控制噪音、照明及溫度

社會需求(關係到社會環境和虛擬與文化情境)

Social demands (related to the social environment and virtual and cultural contexts)
Elements of the social environment and virtual and cultural contexts that may be required by the activity
  • Rules of the game
  • Expectations of other participants in the activity (e.g., sharing supplies, using language appropriate for the meeting, appropriate virtual decorum)

活動的社會環境、虛擬與文化情境要求

  • 比賽的規則
  • 活動中其他參與者的期望(例如共享設備、在會議中使用適當的語言、在虛擬情境中使用適當的禮儀)

次序與時機

Sequencing and timing
Process required to carry out the activity (e.g., specific steps, sequence of steps, timing requirements)
  • Steps to make tea: Gather cup and tea bag, heat water, pour water into cup, let steep, add sugar.
  • Sequence: Heat water before placing tea bag in water.
  • Timing: Leave tea bag to steep for 2 minutes.
  • Steps to conduct a meeting: Establish goals for meeting, arrange time and location, prepare agenda, call meeting to order.
  • Sequence: Have people introduce themselves before beginning discussion of topic.
  • Timing: Allot sufficient time for discussion of topic and determination of action items.

活動進行的過程(例如具體的步驟,步驟的次序、時機要求)

  • 泡茶步驟:準備茶杯和茶包、熱水,將水倒入杯中,浸泡,加白糖。
  • 順序:先加熱水再將放茶包。
  • 時機:茶包浸泡2分鐘。
  • 舉辦會議步驟:建立目標的會議,安排時間和地點,準備議程,召集會議開始。
  • 次序:讓人們先介紹自己再開始議題的討論。
  • 時間:分配足夠的時間討論主題、決定執行項目。

動作要求與表現技巧

Required actions and performance skills
Actions (performance skills—motor, process, and social interaction) required by the client that are an inherent part of the activity
  • Feeling the heat of the stove
  • Gripping a handlebar
  • Choosing ceremonial clothes
  • Determining how to move limbs to control the car
  • Adjusting the tone of voice
  • Answering a question

動作(表現技巧 – 動作、處理、社交互動)

  • 感覺爐子的熱度
  • 緊握車把
  • 選擇正式的服裝
  • 判斷如何移動肢體來控制汽車
  • 調整語氣
  • 回答問題

身體功能

Required body functions
“Physiological functions of body systems (including psychological functions)” (WHO, 2001, p. 10) required to support the actions used to perform the activity
  • Mobility of joints
  • Level of consciousness
  • Cognitive level

活動操作中所需的身體系統的生理功能(包含心理功能)

  • 移動關節
  • 意識層級
  • 認知層級

身體結構

Required body structures
“Anatomical parts of the body such as organs, limbs, and their components” that support body functions (WHO, 2001, p. 10) and are required to perform the activity
  • Number of hands or feet
  • Olfactory or taste organs

活動執行中執行身體機能所需的生理解剖結構,如器官、肢體及組成

  • 手指與腳趾的數量
  • 嗅覺或味覺器官

以上翻譯僅供參考,如有疑慮歡迎留言討論歐!

參考資料:

  • American Journal of Occupational Therapy. Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Domain and Process (3rd Edition). American Journal of Occupational Therapy, March/April 2014, Vol. 68, S1-S48.
職治鼠

職治鼠

職治(吱吱鼠)~在醫院上班的職能治療師,看到很多人因為意外或生病,造成生活上、工作上許多不方便。職能治療雖然沒有辦法延長他們的生命,但卻能協助他們完成日常、工作、休閒等大小事,即使沒有減輕他們的病苦疾患,但我會用教科書上的知識與創意,陪伴他們譜寫生命中最基本的音符~
職治鼠

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